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Evangelio apócrifo



Evangelio apócrifo

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Evangelio apócrifo o extracanónico es el nombre dado a escritos surgidos en los primeros siglos del cristianismo en torno a la figura de Jesús de Nazaret y que no fueron aceptados por la ortodoxia católica, entre los que se encuentran los Manuscritos de Nag Hammadi.

Contenido

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[editar] Fundamentación

Se les dio el nombre de evangelio por su aspecto similar a los cuatro evangelios admitidos en el canon del Nuevo Testamento. Sin embargo, muchos de ellos no tienen un estilo evangélico, ya que no son utilizados para anunciar una Buena Noticia (esto es lo que significa etimológicamente Evangelio).
Algunos de estos escritos surgieron en comunidades gnósticas, con la intención de contener palabras ocultas (en griego, apokryphos). Estos mensajes ocultos entre los discursos atribuidos a Jesús estaban reservados a los iniciados en esas comunidades. Aunque inicialmente se denominó "Evangelio apócrifo" únicamente a este tipo de escritos, se amplió posteriormente a todos los que no se incluyeron en el canon del Nuevo testamento, independientemente de su finalidad, oculta o no. En nuestros días la acepción más utilizada para el término apócrifo hace referencia a falsedad, por tal motivo se los ha empezado a llamar también, evangelios extracanónicos.

[editar] Clasificación

Entre los más de 50 descritos, pueden citarse:

[editar] Evangelios gnósticos

[editar] Evangelios de natividad e infancia

[editar] Evangelios de Pasión y Resurrección

[editar] Otros

[editar] Manuscritos de Nag Hammadi

[editar] Traducciones al español

Hay varias traducciones al español de los llamados Evangelios apócrifos. Entre las completas pueden citarse Los Evangelios Apócrifos, por Edmundo González-Blanco, Madrid, 1934, 3 tomos, reimpresa en 2 tomos por Hyspamérica-Ediciones Argentina, 1985; es la versión más completa, porque incluye textos que no se consideran hoy en día apócrifos; y la edición crítica bilingüe de Aurelio de Santos Otero, Los Evangelios Apócrifos, La Editorial Católica: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1956, reimpresa varias veces, la última en 2005. Hay muchas otras que no poseen nihil obstat ni imprimatur y otras parciales. Sumándolas todas son las siguientes:
  • Los Evangelios Apócrifos: Colección de textos griegos y latinos. Versión crítica, estudios introductorios, comentarios e ilustraciones por Aurelio de Santos Otero. Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos; t. 148. 1963. 10ª ed. (rev. y corr.) Madrid, Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1999.
  • Evangelios apócrifos [recopilado por Joseph Carter]. Málaga, Sirio, D.L. 1996.
  • Evangelios apócrifos. Barberà del Vallès (Barcelona), Humanitas, D.L. 1994.
  • Los evangelios apócrifos: para esclarecer el Nuevo Testamento.Textos escogidos y presentados por Pierre Crépon; [traducido por M. García Viñó]. Madrid, Edaf, D.L. 1993.
  • Evangelios Apócrifos, según la versión de Uriel Koss. Pedro Muñoz (Ciudad Real), Perea, D.L. 1990.
  • Evangelios apócrifos, según la versión de Charles Michael..., P. Peeters. Barcelona, Edicomunicación, D.L. 1989
  • Evangelios apócrifos [traducción, Edmundo González-Blanco]. Barcelona, Hyspamérica, 1987.
  • La cueva de los tesoros. Apócrifos cristianos. Edición de Pilar González Casado. Editorial Ciudad Nueva. Madrid, España. ISBN 84-9715-054-6
  • Hechos apócrifos de los apóstoles. Edición de Antonio Piñero, Tomos I y II. Editorial Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos. Madrid, España. ISBN 84-7914-716-4 (Obra completa).
  • Hechos de Andrés y Mateo en la ciudad de los antropófagos. Martirio del Apóstol San Mateo. Apócrifos Cristianos. Edición de Concepción García lázaro y Gonzalo Aranda Pérez, Editorial Ciudad Nueva. Madrid, España. ISBN 84-9715-007-4.
  • Biblioteca de Nag Hammadi. Volúmenes I, II, III. Textos Gnósticos. Edición de Antonio Piñero y colaboradores. Editorial Trotta. Madrid, España. ISBN 84-8164-163-4 (Obra completa).
  • El evangelio de Judas. Textos Gnósticos. Edición de Francisco García Bazán. Editorial Trotta. Madrid, España. ISBN 84-8164-837-X
  • Apócrifos árabes cristianos. Edición de Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala. Editorial Trotta. Madrid, España. ISBN 84-8164-541-9
  • La dormición de la virgen. Cinco relatos árabes. Edición de Pilar González Casado. Editorial Trotta. Madrid, España. ISBN 84-8164-542-7

[editar] Véase también

[editar] Bibliografía

  • García Bazán, Francisco (2003-). La Gnosis eterna. Antología de textos gnósticos griegos, latinos y coptos. Tres volúmenes en preparación. Madrid: Editorial Trotta. 
  1. La gnosis eterna. Antología de textos gnósticos griegos, latinos y coptos I. 2003. ISBN 978-84-8164-585-9. 
  2. La gnosis eterna. Antología de textos gnósticos griegos, latinos y coptos II. Pístis Sophía / Fe Sabiduría. Primera edición y traducción del original copto en lengua española, 2007. ISBN 978-84-8164-852-2. 
  3. La gnosis eterna. Antología de textos gnósticos griegos, latinos y coptos III. Versión de textos de gnósticos libertinos y de los testimonios hermético-gnósticos, alquímicos y neoplatónicos. En preparación. 
  • – (2006). El Evangelio de Judas. Madrid: Editorial Trotta. ISBN 978-84-8164-837-9. 
  • Jonas, Hans (2000 (2ª edición 2003)). La religión gnóstica. El mensaje del Dios Extraño y los comienzos del cristianismo. Madrid: Editorial Siruela. ISBN 978-84-7844-492-2. 
  • Montserrat Torrents, José (1990). Los Gnósticos. Obra completa. Madrid: Editorial Gredos. 
  1. Volumen I: Los Gnósticos I. 1ª ed., 2ª imp. ISBN 978-84-249-0884-3. 
  2. Volumen II: Los Gnósticos II. 1ª. ed. , 2ª. imp. ISBN 978-84-249-0885-0. 
  • Piñero, Antonio (Editor). Textos Gnósticos. Biblioteca de Nag Hammadi. Obra completa. Madrid: Editorial Trotta. 
  1. Volumen I: Tratados Filosóficos y Cosmológicos. Colaboradores: Traducción, introducción y notas de Antonio Piñero, José Montserrat Torrents, Francisco García Bazán, Fernando Bermejo y Alberto Quevedo. Tapa dura, 1997 (3ª edición 2007). ISBN 978-84-8164-884-3. 
  2. Volumen II: Evangelios, Hechos, Cartas. Colaboradores: Traducción, introducción y notas de Antonio Piñero, José Montserrat Torrents, Francisco García Bazán, Fernando Bermejo y Ramón Trevijano. Tapa dura, 1999 (4ª edición 2009). ISBN 978-84-8164-885-0. 
  3. Volumen III: Apocalipsis y otros escritos. Colaboradores: Traducción, introducción y notas de Antonio Piñero, José Montserrat Torrents, Francisco García Bazán, Gonzalo Aranda, Fernando Bermejo, María Luz Mangado y Alberto Quevedo. Tapa dura, 2000 (2ª edición 2009). ISBN 978-84-9879-020-7. 
  • Piñero, Antonio & Cerro, Gonzalo del (editores). Hechos apócrifos de los Apóstoles. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos. 
  1. Volumen I: Hechos de Andrés, Juan y Pedro. 2004. ISBN 978-84-7914-717-4. 
  2. Volumen II: Hechos de Pablo y Tomás. 2005. ISBN 978-84-7914-804-1. 
  • Santos Otero, Aurelio de (2003/2009). Los evangelios apócrifos. 1ª edición, 12ª impresión. Edición bilingüe. También en colección BAC Selecciones 2009. Madrid: B. A. C. ISBN 978-84-7914-044-1 / ISBN 978-84-220-1409-6. 

[editar] Enlaces externos

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New Testament apocrypha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The New Testament apocrypha are a number of writings by early Christians that give accounts of Jesus and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives. These writings often have links with books regarded as "canonical". Not every branch of the Christian church agrees on which writings should be regarded as "canonical" and which are "apocryphal" (See the Gospel according to the Hebrews).

Contents

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[edit] Definition

The word "apocrypha" means "hidden writings" and comes from the Greek through Latin. The general term is usually applied to the books that were considered by the church as useful, but not divinely inspired. As such, to refer to Gnostic writings as "apocryphal" is misleading since they would not be classified in the same category by orthodox believers.[citation needed]

[edit] History

That some works are categorized as New Testament Apocrypha is indicative of the wide range of responses that were engendered in the interpretation of the message of Jesus of Nazareth. According to Eusebius, the first such gospel was the Gospel according to the Hebrews.[citation needed] During the first several centuries of the transmission of that message, considerable debate turned on safeguarding its authenticity. Three key methods of addressing this survive to the present day: ordination, where groups authorize individuals as reliable teachers of the message; creeds, where groups define the boundaries of interpretation of the message; and canons, which list the primary documents certain groups believe contain the message originally taught by Jesus (in other words, the Bible). Many early books about Jesus were not included in the canons, and are now termed apocryphal. Some of them were vigorously suppressed and survive only as fragments. The earliest lists of authentic works of the New Testament were not quite the same as modern lists; for example, the Book of Revelation was long regarded as inauthentic (see Antilegomena), while Shepherd of Hermas was considered genuine by some Christians, and appears in the Codex Sinaiticus.
The works that presented themselves as "authentic" but that did not obtain general acceptance from within the churches are called New Testament Apocrypha. These are not accepted as canonical by most mainstream Christian denominations; only the Ethiopian Orthodox Church recognizes the Shepherd of Hermas, 1 Clement, Acts of Paul, and several Old Testament books that most other denominations reject, but it should be noted that this church does not adhere to an explicit canon.[citation needed]
The Syriac Peshitta, used by all the various Syrian Churches, originally did not include 2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude and Revelation (and this canon of 22 books is the one cited by John Chrysostom (~347-407) and Theodoret (393-466) from the School of Antioch).[1] Western Syrians have added the remaining five books to their New Testament canons in modern times[2] (such as the Lee Peshitta of 1823). Today, the official lectionaries followed by the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church and the Chaldean Syrian Church, also known as the Church of the East (Nestorian), still only present lessons from the 22 books of the original Peshitta.[3]
The Armenian Apostolic church at times has included the Third Epistle to the Corinthians, but does not always list it with the other 27 canonical New Testament books. This Church did not accept Revelation into its Bible until 1200 CE.[4] The New Testament of the Coptic Bible, adopted by the Egyptian Church, includes the two Epistles of Clement.
Books that are known objectively not to have existed in antiquity are usually not considered part of the New Testament Apocrypha. Among these are the Libellus de Nativitate Sanctae Mariae (also called the "Nativity of Mary") and the Latin Infancy Gospel. The latter two did not exist in antiquity, and they seem to be based on the earlier Infancy Gospels.[citation needed]

[edit] Gospels

[edit] Canonical Gospels

Of the many gospels written in antiquity, only four gospels came to be accepted as part of the New Testament, or canonical.

[edit] Infancy Gospels

The rarity of information about the childhood of Jesus in the canonical Gospels led to a hunger of early Christians for more detail about the early life of Jesus. This was supplied by a number of 2nd century and later texts, known as infancy gospels, none of which were accepted into the biblical canon, but the very number of their surviving manuscripts attests to their continued popularity.
Most of these were based on the earliest infancy gospels, namely the Infancy Gospel of James (also called the "Protoevangelium of James") and Infancy Gospel of Thomas, and on their later combination into the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew (also called the "Infancy Gospel of Matthew" or "Birth of Mary and Infancy of the Saviour").
The other significant early Infancy Gospels are the Syriac Infancy Gospel, the History of Joseph the Carpenter and the Life of John the Baptist.

[edit] Jewish Christian Gospels

Jewish Christian sects within Early Christianity that retained a strong allegiance to Judaism, upholding Mosaic Law, used these Gospels as specific to themselves:
Since these mostly survive as quotes scattered amongst critical commentaries by Pauline Christianity, some modern theories suggest that these may be variations on one another, although the quotations from the Gospel of the Ebionites appear more distinct than the others. It has also been suggested that the Gospel of the Hebrews may have been an earlier version of the Greek Gospel of Matthew.

[edit] Rival versions of canonical Gospels

Many alternate edited versions of other gospels existed during the period of early Christianity. Sometimes, those attributed to the text state elsewhere that their text is the earlier version, or that their text excises all the additions and distortions made by their opponents to the more recognised version of the text. The church fathers insisted that these people were the ones making distortions, but some modern scholars do not. It remains to be seen whether any are earlier and more accurate versions of the canonical texts. Details of their contents only survive in the attacks on them by their opponents, and so for the most part it is uncertain as to how extensively different they are, and whether any constitute entirely different works. These texts include:

[edit] Sayings Gospels

One or two texts take the form of brief logia—sayings and parables of Jesus—which are not embedded in a connected narrative:
A minority of scholars regard the Gospel of Thomas as part of the tradition from which the canonical gospels eventually emerged; in any case both of these documents are important as showing us what the theoretical Q document might have looked like.

[edit] Passion Gospels

A number of Gospels are concerned specifically with the "Passion" (arrest, execution and resurrection) of Jesus:
Although three texts take Bartholomew's name, it may be that one of the Questions of Bartholomew or the Resurrection of Jesus Christ is in fact the unknown Gospel of Bartholomew.

[edit] Harmonic Gospels

A number of texts aim to provide a single harmonization of the canonical gospels, that eliminates discordances among them by presenting a unified text derived from them to some degree. The most widely read of these was the Diatessaron. Of all the extant texts, the majority appear to be variations on the suppressed Diatessaron.

[edit] Gnostic texts

In the modern era, many Gnostic texts have been uncovered, especially from the Nag Hammadi library. Some texts take the form of an expounding of the esoteric cosmology and ethics held by the Gnostics. Often this was in the form of dialogue in which Jesus expounds esoteric knowledge while his disciples raise questions concerning it. There is also a text, known as the Epistula Apostolorum, which is a polemic against Gnostic esoterica, but written in a similar style as the Gnostic texts.

[edit] Dialogues with Jesus

[edit] General texts concerning Jesus

[edit] Sethian texts concerning Jesus

The Sethians were a gnostic group who originally worshipped the biblical Seth as a messianic figure, later treating Jesus as a re-incarnation of Seth. They produced numerous texts expounding their esoteric cosmology, usually in the form of visions:

[edit] Ritual diagrams

Some of the Gnostic texts appear to consist of diagrams and instructions for use in religious rituals:

[edit] Acts

Several texts concern themselves with the subsequent lives of the apostles, usually with highly supernatural events. Almost half of these are said (by who?) to have been written by Leucius Charinus (known as the Leucian Acts), a companion of John the apostle. The Acts of Thomas and the Acts of Peter and the Twelve are often considered Gnostic texts. While most of the texts are believed to have been written in the 2nd century, at least two, the Acts of Barnabas and the Acts of Peter and Paul are believed to have been written as late as the 5th century.

[edit] Epistles

There are also non-canonical epistles (or "letters") between individuals or to Christians in general. Some of them were regarded very highly by the early church:

[edit] Apocalypses

Several works frame themselves as visions, often discussing the future, afterlife, or both:

[edit] Fate of Mary

Several texts (over 50) consist of descriptions of the events surrounding the varied fate of Mary (the mother of Jesus):
  • The Home Going of Mary
  • The Falling asleep of the Mother of God
  • The Descent of Mary

[edit] Miscellany

These texts, due to their content or form, do not fit into the other categories:

[edit] Fragments

In addition to the known Apocryphal works, there are also small fragments of texts, parts of unknown (or uncertain) works. Some of the more significant fragments are:

[edit] Lost works

Several texts are mentioned in many ancient sources and would probably be considered part of the apocrypha, but no known text has survived:

[edit] A note about orthodoxy

While many of the books listed here were considered heretical (especially those belonging to the gnostic tradition—as this sect was considered heretical by Proto-orthodox Christianity of the early centuries), others were not considered particularly heretical in content, but in fact were well accepted as significant spiritual works. They are however not considered canonical.

[edit] Evaluation

Among historians of early Christianity the books are considered invaluable, especially those that almost made it into the final canon, such as Shepherd of Hermas. Bart Ehrman, for example, said:
The victors in the struggles to establish Christian Orthodoxy not only won their theological battles, they also rewrote the history of the conflict; later readers then naturally assumed that the victorious views had been embraced by the vast majority of Christians from the very beginning ... The practice of Christian forgery has a long and distinguished history ... the debate lasted three hundred years ... even within "orthodox" circles there was considerable debate concerning which books to include.[5]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Peshitta
  2. ^ Peshitta
  3. ^ Peshitta
  4. ^ Reliability
  5. ^ Barth Ehrman, Lost Christianities

[edit] External links

Some of the most complete collections and resources on New Testament Apocrypha can be found at:
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