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Evangelio de Tomás - Gospel of Thomas



Evangelio de Tomás

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Artículo principal: Manuscritos de Nag Hammadi
El Evangelio de Tomás —también llamado Evangelio copto de Tomás o Evangelio gnóstico de Tomás— es un evangelio apócrifo que contiene 114 dichos atribuidos a Jesús de Nazaret. Se ha conservado en un papiro manuscrito en copto, descubierto en 1945 en la localidad egipcia de Nag Hammadi. Existen dudas acerca de su fecha de composición. Algunos de los dichos de este evangelio se asemejan a los de los evangelios canónicos de Marcos, Mateo, Lucas y Juan; otros eran desconocidos hasta su descubrimiento.

Contenido

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[editar] Estructura

A diferencia de los evangelios canónicos, el de Tomás no adopta la estructura de un relato acerca de la vida de Jesús, sino que contiene sólo dichos (en griego logia) de Jesús enmarcados en las conversaciones que mantiene con varios de sus discípulos. La autoría de la obra es atribuida en un breve prólogo a Dídimo Judas Tomás («dídimo» significa ‘mellizo’): «Estas son las palabras secretas que pronunció Jesús el Viviente y que Dídimo Judas Tomás consignó por escrito». Finaliza con el título «El Evangelio según (gr. kata) Tomás».
Unos 17 de los 114 dichos que componen este evangelio coinciden con otros dichos, redactados en griego, encontrados en unos fragmentos de papiro descubiertos en Oxyrhynchus, en Egipto, en 1898. Estos fragmentos se han fechado en torno al año 200, en tanto que el manuscrito copto hallado en Nag Hammadi data de alrededor de 340. Se cree que el manuscrito copto es traducción de un texto griego más antiguo, del que dan testimonio los fragmentos de Oxyrhynchus

[editar] Confusión con otras obras

Debe distinguirse el Evangelio de Tomás de otros apócrifos o pseudoepígrafos atribuidos al mismo personaje, como los Hechos de Tomás o el Evangelio del Pseudo Tomás (acerca de supuestas cosas que hizo Jesús siendo niño), así como del texto gnóstico conocido como Libro de Tomás el Contendiente.
Hipólito de Roma (muerto hacia 235) hace referencia a un Evangelio de Tomás, del que cita un logion («Quien me busca me encontrará entre los niños a partir de los siete años, pues allí me manifiesto oculto en el decimocuarto eón») que no aparece en el texto de Nag Hammadi, y que se ha relacionado más bien con los apócrifos de la infancia.
También Ireneo (en Adversus haereses, Contra los herejes, 1, 22, 1) menciona un Evangelio de Tomás, pero se cree que hace referencia al Evangelio del Seudo Tomás y no al que aquí nos ocupa.
En el siglo IV es mencionado por Cirilo de Jerusalén, quien en su Cathechesis V afirma que no se trata de una obra de ninguno de los apóstoles, sino de uno de «tres malvados discípulos de Mani». Sin embargo, en este evangelio apenas hay trazas de dualismo maniqueo.

[editar] Fecha

Actualmente existe un vivo debate acerca de la fecha de composición de este evangelio. Existen fundamentalmente dos teorías: una serie de estudiosos defienden una datación temprana de este evangelio, en torno al año 50, antes, incluso, que el primero de los evangelios canónicos, el de Marcos; otros abogan por una fecha más tardía, posterior a los canónicos y no anterior, en cualquier caso, a finales del siglo I (la mayor parte de estos autores prefiere la fecha de 150). La datación temprana está más extendida entre los investigadores estadounidenses, en tanto que la tardía es preferida en Europa (especialmente en Alemania y el Reino Unido).

[editar] Datación temprana

Los partidarios de la datación temprana argumentan que —dado que el Evangelio de Tomás se compone sobre todo de material original y no parece basarse en los evangelios canónicos— debe haber sido escrito partiendo de una tradición oral. Dado que sólo en el siglo I fue considerada la tradición oral como fuente de autoridad, el Evangelio de Tomás debió haberse escrito en esta época. Si así fue, se ha pensado que pudo haber cierta relación entre este texto y la hipotética fuente Q, texto escrito u oral, que, según la teoría de las dos fuentes (la más extendida acerca de los sinópticos) es la fuente del material común a los evangelios de Mateo y de Lucas, que no procede de Marcos.
Existe la hipótesis de que Q se formó en tres estratos sucesivos (denominados, respectivamente, Q1, Q2 y Q3), de los cuales el material apocalíptico corresponde a los dos últimos. Estudiosos bíblicos han identificado 37 dichos de Jesús que coinciden en su reconstrucción de Q y en el Evangelio de Tomás, de los cuales todos corresponderían a los estratos primero y segundo de Q (los más antiguos). Según esta hipótesis, el autor de Tomás no conoció (o apenas conoció) Q3, pues no incorporó este material a su escrito. Dado que Q1 y Q2 serían anteriores a los cuatro evangelios canónicos, el Evangelio de Tomás sería más antiguo que ellos y, por tanto, el primero de todos los evangelios conocidos.
Según algunos autores, como Koester, este evangelio se basa en tradiciones anteriores a las fechas en que se escribieron los evangelios canónicos. Otros autores señalan que el Evangelio de Tomás sigue los mismos cambios verbales que Lucas utiliza sobre el texto de Marcos (Logion 5 de Tomás; Lc 8,17; Mc 4,22). Esto sugiere que los evangelios de Lucas y Tomás son tardíos respecto a Marcos.

[editar] Teoría de Elaine Pagels

Según la tesis desarrollada por la teóloga Elaine Pagels en su libro Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of Thomas (‘Más allá de la fe: el evangelio secreto de Tomás’), muchos de los pasajes del evangelio de Juan pueden entenderse como una refutación de los dichos, ideas, tradiciones y creencias de una comunidad cristiana cuya línea de pensamiento estaría ejemplificada por el Evangelio de Tomás. El ejemplo más destacado es la imagen que en el evangelio de Juan se da del apóstol Tomás, en pasajes como el de la duda de Santo Tomás (Juan 20:24-29).

[editar] Contenido

Consta de 114 sentencias, que comienzan con la fórmula «Jesús dijo» o «Él dijo». Enfatizan en la sencillez, en la sinceridad y en la renuncia al poder mundano:

Jesús dijo: «Haceos transeúntes». [42]
«Si no ayunáis del mundo, no encontraréis el Reino.» [27]
Le preguntaron sus discípulos diciéndole: «¿Quieres que ayunemos? ¿Y de qué forma hemos de orar y dar limosna, y qué hemos de observar respecto a la comida?». Jesús dijo: «No mintáis ni hagáis lo que aborrecéis, pues ante el cielo todo está patente, ya que nada hay oculto que no termine por quedar manifiesto y nada escondido que pueda mantenerse sin ser revelado». [6]
«Quien haya encontrado el mundo y se haya hecho rico, ¡que renuncie al mundo!» [110]
«Si tenéis algún dinero, no lo prestéis con interés, sino dádselo a aquel que no va a devolvéroslo.» [95]
Reclaman el amor al prójimo:
Dijo Jesús: «Ama a tu hermano como a tu alma; cuida de él como a la pupila de tus ojos». [25]
«Si dos personas hacen la paz entre sí en esta misma casa, dirán a la montaña: “¡Desplázate de aquí!”, y ella se desplazará.» [48]
Su concepción del papel de la mujer tiene un peculiar interés:
Simón Pedro les dice: «Que María salga de entre nosotros, pues las hembras no son dignas de la vida». Jesús dice: «He aquí que le inspiraré a ella para que se convierta en varón, para que ella misma se haga un espíritu viviente semejante a vosotros varones. Pues cada hembra que se convierte en varón, entrará en el Reino de los Cielos». [114]
Jesús les dijo: «Cuando hagáis de los dos uno, y hagáis el interior como el exterior y el exterior como el interior y lo de arriba como lo de abajo, y cuando establezcáis el varón con la hembra como una sola unidad de tal modo que el hombre no sea masculino ni la mujer femenina, cuando establezcáis un ojo en el lugar de un ojo y una mano en el lugar de una mano y un pie en el lugar de un pie y una imagen en el lugar de una imagen, entonces entraréis en el Reino». [22]
En otros puntos, el conjunto de las sentencias muestra importantes similitudes con la colección de los dichos de Jesús (logia), también conocida como Q (del alemán Quelle, ‘fuente’), que se supone fue utilizada para escribir los evangelios de Mateo y Lucas. Se considera que la antigüedad del Evangelio de Tomás es otra prueba de la existencia de esa fuente común.

[editar] Enlaces externos


El contenido de este artículo incorpora material de una entrada de la Enciclopedia Libre Universal, publicada en español bajo la licencia Creative Commons Compartir-Igual 3.0.

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Gospel of Thomas

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Texts of the Nag Hammadi library
The Gospel According to Thomas, commonly shortened to the Gospel of Thomas, is a well preserved early Christian, non-canonical sayings-gospel discovered near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, in December 1945, in one of a group of books known as the Nag Hammadi library.[1]
The Coptic language text, the second of seven contained in what modern-day scholars have designated as Codex II, is composed of 114 sayings attributed to Jesus.[2] Almost half of these sayings more or less resemble those found in the Canonical Gospels, while the other sayings were previously unknown. Its place of origin may have been Syria, where Thomasine traditions were strong.[3]
The introduction states: These are the hidden words that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos Judas Thomas wrote them down. [4] Didymus (Greek) and Thomas (Aramaic) both mean "twin". Some scholars suspect that this reference to the Apostle Thomas is false, and that therefore the true author is unknown.[5] The document probably originated within a school of early Christians, possibly proto-Gnostics [6] Even the description of Thomas as a "gnostic" gospel is based upon little other than the fact that it was found along with gnostic texts at Nag Hammadi.[7] The name of Thomas was also attached to the Book of Thomas the Contender, which was also in Nag Hammadi Codex II, and the Acts of Thomas.
The Gospel of Thomas is very different in tone and structure from other New Testament apocrypha and the four Canonical Gospels. Unlike the canonical Gospels, it is not a narrative account of the life of Jesus; instead, it consists of logia (sayings) attributed to Jesus, sometimes stand-alone, sometimes embedded in short dialogues or parables. The text contains a possible allusion to the death of Jesus in logion 65 [8] (Parable of the Wicked Tenants, paralleled in the Synoptic Gospels), but doesn't mention crucifixion, resurrection, or final judgement; nor does it mention a messianic understanding of Jesus.[9][10] The Early Church believed it to be a false gospel. Eusebius, for example, included it among a group of books that he believed to be not only spurious, but "the fictions of heretics" that should be thrown out as absurd and impious.[11]

Contents

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[edit] Finds and publication

The manuscript of the Coptic text, found in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, Egypt, is dated at around 340. It was first published in a photographic edition in 1956.[12] This was followed three years later (1959) by the first English-language translation, with Coptic transcription.[13] In 1977, James M. Robinson edited the first complete collection of English translations of the Nag Hammadi texts.[14] The Gospel of Thomas has been translated and annotated worldwide in a wide variety of languages.
The original Coptic manuscript is now the property of the Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt, Department of Manuscripts.[15]

[edit] Oxyrhynchus papyri fragments

After the Coptic version of the complete text was discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, scholars soon realized that three different Greek text fragments previously found at Oxyrhynchus, also in Egypt, were part of the Gospel of Thomas.[16][17] These three papyrus fragments of Thomas date to between 130 - 250 CE. Prior to the Nag Hammadi library discovery, the sayings of Jesus found in Oxyrhynchus were known simply as Logia Iesu. The corresponding Koine Greek fragments of the Gospel of Thomas, found in Oxyrhynchus are:
  • P.Oxy. 1: fragments of logia 26 through 33, with the last two sentences of logion 77 in the Coptic version included at the end of logion 30 herein.
  • P.Oxy. 654: fragments of the beginning through logion 7, logion 24 and logion 36 on the flip side of a papyrus containing surveying data.
  • P.Oxy. 655: fragments of logia 36 through 39. 8 fragments designated a through h, whereof f and h have since been lost.
The wording of the Coptic sometimes differs markedly from the earlier Greek Oxyrhynchus texts, the extreme case being that the last portion of logion 30 in the Greek is found at the end of logion 77 in the Coptic. This fact, along with the quite different wording Hippolytus uses when apparently quoting it (see below), suggests that the Gospel of Thomas "may have circulated in more than one form and passed through several stages of redaction."[18]
Although it is still generally assumed that the "Gospel of Thomas" was first composed in Greek, there is growing evidence that the Coptic Nag Hammadi text is a translation from Syriac. On comparing the Greek fragments from Oxyrhynchus with the fuller Coptic version, Nicholas Perrin argues that the differences can be attributed to the reliance of both on a common Syriac source.[19]

[edit] Attestation

The earliest surviving written references to the Gospel of Thomas are found in the writings of Hippolytus of Rome (c. 222-235) and Origen of Alexandria (c. 233).[20] Hippolytus wrote in his Refutation of All Heresies 5.7.20:
"[The Naassenes] speak...of a nature which is both hidden and revealed at the same time and which they call the thought-for kingdom of heaven which is in a human being. They transmit a tradition concerning this in the Gospel entitled "According to Thomas," which states expressly, "The one who seeks me will find me in children of seven years and older, for there, hidden in the fourteenth aeon, I am revealed."
This appears to be a reference to saying 4 of Thomas, although the wording differs significantly.
Origen listed the "Gospel according to Thomas" as being among the heterodox apocryphal gospels known to him (Hom. in Luc. 1).
In the 4th and 5th centuries, various Church Fathers wrote that the Gospel of Thomas was highly valued by Mani. In the 4th century, Cyril of Jerusalem mentioned a "Gospel of Thomas" twice in his Catechesis: "The Manichæans also wrote a Gospel according to Thomas, which being tinctured with the fragrance of the evangelic title corrupts the souls of the simple sort."[21] and "Let none read the Gospel according to Thomas: for it is the work not of one of the twelve Apostles, but of one of the three wicked disciples of Manes."[22] The 5th century Decretum Gelasianum includes "A Gospel attributed to Thomas which the Manichaean use" in its list of heretical books.[23]

[edit] Date of composition

Gnosticism
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This article is part of a series on Gnosticism
History of Gnosticism
Early Gnosticism
Syrian-Egyptic Gnosticism
Gnosticism in modern times
Proto-Gnostics
Philo
Simon Magus
Cerinthus
Valentinus
Basilides
Gnostic texts
Gnostic Gospels
Nag Hammadi library
Codex Tchacos
Askew Codex
Bruce Codex
Gnosticism and the New Testament
Related articles
Gnosis
Neoplatonism and Gnosticism
Mandaeism
Manichaeism
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Richard Valantasis writes:
Assigning a date to the Gospel of Thomas is very complex because it is difficult to know precisely to what a date is being assigned. Scholars have proposed a date as early as AD 60 or as late as AD 140, depending upon whether the Gospel of Thomas is identified with the original core of sayings, or with the author's published text, or with the Greek or Coptic texts, or with parallels in other literature.[24]
Valantasis and other scholars argue that it is difficult to date Thomas because, as a collection of logia without a narrative framework, individual sayings could have been added to it gradually over time.[25]
Robert E. Van Voorst states:
Most interpreters place its writing in the second century, understanding that many of its oral traditions are much older.[26]
Scholars generally fall into one of two main camps: an "early camp" favoring a date for the "core" of between the years 50 and 100, before or approximately contemporary with the composition of the canonical gospels and a "late camp" favoring a date in the 2nd century, after composition of the canonical gospels.[27]

[edit] The early camp

Those who argue that Thomas dates from the first century use a variety of arguments.

[edit] Form of the gospel

Theissen and Merz argue the genre of a collection of sayings was one of the earliest forms in which material about Jesus was handed down.[28] They assert that other collections of sayings, such as the Q document and the collection underlying Mark 4, were absorbed into larger narratives and no longer survive as independent documents, and that no later collections in this form survive.[28] Meyer also asserts that the genre of a "sayings collection" is indicative of the first century,[29] and that in particular the "use of parables without allegorical amplification" seems to antedate the canonical gospels.[29] Maurice Casey has strongly questioned the argument from genre: the "logic of the argument requires that Q and the Gospel of Thomas be also dated at the same time as both the book of Proverbs and the Sayings of Amen-em-Opet!"[30]

[edit] Independence from Synoptic Gospels

Stevan L. Davies argues that the apparent independence of the ordering of sayings in Thomas from that of their parallels in the synoptics shows that Thomas was most likely not reliant upon the canonical Gospels and probably predated them.[31] A number of authors argue that when the logia in Thomas do have parallels in the synoptics the version in Thomas often seems closer to the source. Theissen and Merz give sayings 31 and 65 as examples of this.[28] Koester agrees, citing especially the parables contained in sayings 8, 9, 57, 63, 64 and 65.[32] In the few instances where the version in Thomas seems to be dependent on the Synoptics, Koester suggests, this may be due to the influence of the person who translated the text from Greek into Coptic.[32]
Koester also argues that the absence of narrative materials (such as those found in the canonical gospels) in Thomas makes it unlikely that the gospel is "an eclectic excerpt from the gospels of the New Testament".[32] He also cites the absence of the eschatological sayings characteristic of Q to show the independence of Thomas from that source.[32]

[edit] Intertextuality with John's gospel

Another argument for an early date is what some scholars have suggested is an interplay between the Gospel of John and the logia of Thomas. Parallels between the two have been taken to suggest that Thomas' logia preceded John's work, and that the latter was making a point-by-point riposte to Thomas, either in real or mock conflict. This seeming dialectic has been pointed out by several New Testament scholars, notably Gregory J. Riley,[33] April DeConick,[34] and Elaine Pagels.[35] Though differing in approach, they argue that several verses in the Gospel of John are best understood as responses to a Thomasine community and its beliefs. Pagels, for example, says that John's gospel makes two references to the inability of the world to recognize the divine light.[36] In contrast, several of Thomas' sayings refer to the light born 'within'.[37] John 1:9 ("...Light that lights every man born into the world") acknowledges Thomas' idea of the Light within. John also follows Thomas by personifying the Light as Jesus.[38] John 14:16 ("I am the way, the truth, and the life...) and chapter 17, which emphasizes salvation via the logos of Christ, expands on Thomas' logion 1. Intertextuality and acknowledgment of Thomas' priority seems to be in play.
John's gospel is the only canonical one that gives Thomas the Apostle a dramatic role and spoken part, and Thomas is the only character therein described as having apistos (unbelief), in spite of the fact that virtually all the Johannine characters fail to live up to the author's standards of belief. With respect to the famous story of Doubting Thomas,[39] it is suggested that John may have been denigrating or ridiculing a rival school of thought; however, this may be entirely tongue-in-cheek, as a sort of inside joke. In another apparent contrast, John's text matter-of-factly presents a bodily resurrection as if this is a sine qua non of the faith; in contrast, Thomas' insights about the spirit-and-body are more nuanced.[40] For Thomas, resurrection seems more a cognitive event of spiritual attainment, one even involving a certain discipline or asceticism. Again, an apparently denigrating portrayal in the "Doubting Thomas" story may either be taken literally, or as a kind of mock "comeback" to Thomas' logia: not as an outright censuring of Thomas, but an improving gloss. After all, Thomas' thoughts about the spirit and body are really not so different from those which John has presented elsewhere.[41] John portrays Thomas as physically touching the risen Jesus, inserting fingers and hands into his body, and ending with a shout. Pagels interprets this as signifying one-upmanship by John, who is forcing Thomas to acknowledge Jesus' bodily nature. She writes that "...he shows Thomas giving up his search for experiential truth – his 'unbelief' – to confess what John sees as the truth...".[42] The point of these examples, as used by Riley and Pagels, is to support the argument that the text of Thomas must have existed and have gained a following at the time of the writing of John's Gospel, and that the importance of the Thomasine logia was great enough that John felt the necessity of weaving them into his own narrative.
As the scholarly debate continues on the issue of possible John-Thomas interplay, Christopher Skinner more recently responded in part to Riley, DeConick, and Pagels with John and Thomas - Gospels in Conflict? (Wipf and Stock, Princeton Theological Monograph Series 115, 2009).

[edit] Role of James

Albert Hogeterp argues that the Gospel's saying 12, which attributes leadership of the community to James the Just rather than to Peter, agrees with the description of the early Jerusalem church by Paul in Galatians 2:1-14 and may reflect a tradition predating AD 70.[43] Meyer also lists "uncertainty about James the righteous, the brother of Jesus" as characteristic of a first century origin.[29]

[edit] Depiction of Peter and Matthew

In saying 13, Peter and Matthew are depicted as unable to understand the true significance or identity of Jesus. Patterson argues that this can be interpreted as a criticism against the school of Christianity associated with the Gospel of Matthew, and that "[t]his sort of rivalry seems more at home in the first century than later", when all the apostles had become revered figures.[44]

[edit] Parallel with Paul

According to Meyer, Thomas's saying 17: "I shall give you what no eye has seen, what no ear has heard and no hand has touched, and what has not come into the human heart", is strikingly similar to what Paul told the Corinthians he criticizes in 1 Corinthians 2:9.[29]

[edit] The late camp

The late camp dates Thomas some time after 100, generally in the mid-2nd century.[45][46] They generally believe that although the text was composed around the mid-second century, it contains earlier sayings such as those originally found in the New Testament gospels of which Thomas was in some sense dependent in addition to inauthentic and possibly authentic independent sayings not found in any other extant text.

[edit] Dependence on the New Testament Gospels

A number of scholars have pointed out that the sayings in Thomas reflect conflations and harmonisations dependent on the canonical gospels. For example, saying 10 and 16 appear to contain a redacted harmonisation of Luke 12:4912:51-52and Matthew 10:34-35. In this case it has been suggested that the dependence is best explained by the author of Thomas making use of an earlier harmonised oral tradition based on Matthew and Luke.[47][48]
[edit] Dependency on Luke's gospel
Another argument made for the late dating of Thomas is based upon the fact that Saying 5 in the original Greek (Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 654) seems to follow the vocabulary used in the gospel according to Luke (Luke 8:17), and not the vocabulary used in the gospel according to Mark (Mark 4:22). According to this argument - which presupposes firstly the rectitude of the Two-Source Hypothesis (widely held amongst current New Testament scholars), in which the author of Luke is seen as having used the pre-existing gospel according to Mark plus a lost Q document to compose his gospel - if the author of Thomas did, as Saying 5 suggests - refer to a pre-existing gospel according to Luke, rather than Mark's vocabulary, then the gospel of Thomas must have been composed subsequent to both Mark and Luke (the latter of which is dated to between 60AD - 90AD).
Another saying that employs similar vocabulary to that used in Luke rather than Mark is Saying 31 in the original Greek (Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1), where Luke 4:23's term dektos (acceptable) 4:23 is employed rather than Mark 6:4's atimos (without honor). The word dektos (in all its cases and genders) is clearly typical of Luke, since it is only employed by him in the canonical gospels Luke 4:19; 4:24;Acts 10:35). Thus, the argument runs, the Greek Thomas has clearly been at least influenced by Luke's characteristic vocabulary.[49]
According to John P. Meier, c 1990, scholars predominately conclude that Thomas depends on or harmonizes the Synoptics.[50]
[edit] Syriac origin
A number of scholars argue that Thomas is dependent on Syriac writings, including unique versions of the canonical gospels. They contend that many sayings of the Gospel of Thomas are more similar to Syriac translations of the canonical gospels than their record in the original Greek. Craig A. Evans states that saying 54 in Thomas, which speaks of the poor and the kingdom of heaven, is more similar to the Syriac version of Matthew 5:3 than the Greek version of that passage or the parallel in Luke 6:20.[51]
Klyne Snodgrass notes that saying 65-66 of Thomas containing the Parable of the Wicked Tenants appears to be dependent on the early harmonisation of Mark and Luke found in the old Syriac gospels. He concludes that, "Thomas, rather than representing the earliest form, has been shaped by this harmonizing tendency in Syria. If the Gospel of Thomas were the earliest, we would have to imagine that each of the evangelists or the traditions behind them expanded the parable in different directions and then that in the process of transmission the text was trimmed back to the form it has in the Syriac Gospels. It is much more likely that Thomas, which has a Syrian provenance, is dependent on the tradition of the canonical Gospels that has been abbreviated and harmonized by oral transmission."[52]
Nicholas Perrin argues that Thomas is dependent on the Diatessaron, which was composed shortly after 172 by Tatian in Syria.[53] Perrin explains the order of the sayings by attempting to demonstrate that almost all adjacent sayings are connected by Syriac catchwords, whereas in Coptic or Greek, catchwords have been found for only less than half of the pairs of adjacent sayings.[54] Peter J. Williams analyzed Perrin's alleged Syriac catchwords and found them implausible. [55] Robert Shedinger wrote that since Perrin attempts to reconstruct an Old Syriac version of Thomas without first establishing Thomas' reliance on the Diatessaron, Perrin's logic seems circular.[56]
[edit] Lack of apocalyptic themes
Bart Ehrman argues that the historical Jesus was an apocalyptic preacher, and that his apocalyptic beliefs are recorded in the earliest Christian documents: Mark and the authentic Pauline epistles. The earliest Christians believed Jesus would soon return, and their beliefs are echoed in the earliest Christian writings. The Gospel of Thomas proclaims that the Kingdom of God is already present for those who understand the secret message of Jesus[citation needed], and lacks apocalyptic themes. Because of this, Ehrman argues, The Gospel of Thomas is likely composed by a Gnostic some time in the early second century.[57]

[edit] The Gospel of Thomas and the New Testament Canon

The harsh and widespread reaction to Marcion's canon, the first New Testament canon known to have been created, may demonstrate that, by 140, it had become widely accepted that other texts formed parts of the records of the life and ministry of Jesus. Although arguments about some potential New Testament books, such as the Shepherd of Hermas and Book of Revelation, continued well into the 4th century, four canonical gospels, attributed to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, were accepted among orthodox Christians at least as early as the mid-2nd century. Tatian's widely used Diatessaron, compiled between 160 and 175, utilized the four gospels without any consideration of others. Irenaeus of Lyons wrote in the late 2nd century that since there are four quarters of the earth ... it is fitting that the church should have four pillars ... the four Gospels (Against Heresies, 3.11.8), and then shortly thereafter made the first known quotation from a fourth gospel—the canonical version of the Gospel of John. The late 2nd-century Muratorian fragment also recognizes only the three synoptic gospels and John. Bible scholar Bruce Metzger wrote regarding the formation of the New Testament canon, "Although the fringes of the emerging canon remained unsettled for generations, a high degree of unanimity concerning the greater part of the New Testament was attained among the very diverse and scattered congregations of believers not only throughout the Mediterranean world, but also over an area extending from Britain to Mesopotamia."[58]
It should be noted that information about the historical Jesus itself was not a singular criterion for inclusion into the New Testament Canon. Not all of the books that ended up in the New Testament contain information about the historical Jesus nor teachings from the historical Jesus, as evidenced by the Epistles and the book of Revelation.
The Gospel of Thomas may have been excluded from the canon of the New Testament because it was believed
  • not to have been written close to the time of Jesus
  • not to have been written by apostolic authority or was forged in Thomas' name
  • not to have been used by multiple churches over a wide geographic range
  • to be heretical or unorthodox[59]
  • not to have been useful or comprehensible
  • to be secret - or for adepts - as the first sentence of the gospel declares.

[edit] The philosophy of the Gospel of Thomas

In the Thomas gospel, Jesus is presented as a spiritual guide whose words (when properly understood) bring eternal life (Saying 1). Readers of these sayings are advised to continue seeking until they find what will enable them to become rulers of their own lives (Saying 2) and thus to know themselves (Saying 3) and their legacy of being the children of "the living Father" (Saying 3). These goals are presented in the image of "entering the Kingdom" by the methodology of insight that goes beyond duality. (Saying 22). The Gospel of Thomas shows little or no concern for orthodox religious concepts and doctrines.
The Gospel of Thomas emphasizes direct and unmediated experience. In Thomas saying 108, Jesus says, "Whoever drinks from my mouth will become as I am; I myself shall become that person, and the hidden things will be revealed to him." Furthermore, salvation is personal and found through spiritual (psychological) introspection. In Thomas saying 70, Jesus says, "If you bring forth what is within you, what you have will save you. If you do not bring it forth, what you do not have within you will kill you." As such, this form of salvation is idiosyncratic and without literal explanation unless read from a psychological perspective related to Self vs. ego. In Thomas saying 3, Jesus says,
...the Kingdom of God is inside of you, and it is outside of you. When you come to know yourselves, then you will become known, and you will realize that it is you who are the sons of the living Father. But if you will not know yourselves, you dwell in poverty, and it is you who are that poverty.
In the other four gospels, Jesus is frequently called upon to explain the meanings of parables or the correct procedure for prayer. In Thomas saying 6, his disciples ask him, "Do you want us to fast? How should we pray? Should we give alms? What diet should we observe?" For reasons unknown, Jesus' answer is found in saying 14, wherein he advises against fasting, praying, and the giving of alms (all contrary to Christian practice of the time), but takes a Pauline[dubious ] position that what goes into the mouth will not defile a person, but what comes out of the mouth will. This is just one example in Thomas in which the hearer's attention is directed away from objectified judgements of the world to knowing oneself in direct and straighforward manner, which is sometimes called being "as a child" or "a little one" through the unification of dualistic thinking and modes of objectification. (For example, Sayings 22 and 37) To portray the breaking down of the dualistic perspective Jesus uses the image of fire which consumes all. (See Sayings 10 and 82).
The teaching of salvation (i.e., entering the Kingdom of Heaven) that is found in The Gospel of Thomas is neither that of "works" nor of "grace" as the dichotomy is found in the canonical gospels, but what might be called a third way, that of insight. The overriding concern of The Gospel of Thomas is to find the light within in order to be a light unto the world. (See for example, Sayings 24, 26)
In contrast to the Gospel of John, where Jesus is likened to a (divine and beloved) Lord as in ruler, the Thomas gospel portrays Jesus as more the ubiquitous vehicle of spiritual inspiration and enlightenment, as in saying 77:
I am the light that shines over all things. I am everything. From me all came forth, and to me all return. Split a piece of wood, and I am there. Lift a stone, and you will find me there.
In many other respects, the Thomas gospel offers terse yet familiar if not identical accounts of the sayings of Jesus as seen in the synoptic gospels.[60]
Elaine Pagels, in her book Beyond Belief, argues that the Thomas gospel at first fell victim to the needs of the early Christian community for solidarity in the face of persecution, then to the will of the Emperor Constantine, who at the First Council of Nicaea in 325, wanted an end to the sectarian squabbling and a universal Christian creed. She goes on to point out that in spite of it being left out of the Catholic canon, being banned and sentenced to burn, many of the mystical elements have proven to reappear perennially in the works of mystics like Jacob Boehme, Teresa of Avila and Saint John of the Cross. She concludes that the Thomas gospel gives us a rare glimpse into the diversity of beliefs in the early Christian community, an alternative perspective to the Johannine gospel.

[edit] Importance and author

The Gospel of Thomas is regarded by some scholars as one of the most important texts in understanding early Christianity outside the New Testament. It is one of the earliest accounts of the teaching of Jesus outside of the canonical gospels, according to a few scholars, and so is considered a valuable text.[61] It is further unique in that the gospel is no more than a collection of Jesus' sayings and parables, and contains no narrative account of his life, which is something that all four canonical gospels include.
No major Christian group accepts this gospel as canonical or authoritative. Nonetheless, it is an important work for scholars working on the Q document, which itself is thought to be a collection of sayings or teachings upon which Matthew and Luke are partly based. Although no copy of Q has ever been discovered, the fact that Thomas is similarly a 'sayings' Gospel is taken by some as indication that the early Christians did write collections of the sayings of Jesus, and thus they feel it renders the Q theory more credible.[62]
By the time of its discovery, most scholars did not consider Apostle Thomas the author of this document and the author remained unknown. J. Menard produced a summary of the academic consensus in the mid-1970s which stated that the gospel was likely a very late text written by a Gnostic author, thus having very little relevance to the study of the early development of Christianity. Scholarly views of Gnosticism and the Gospel of Thomas have since become more nuanced and diverse.[63]
In the 4th century Cyril of Jerusalem considered the author a disciple of Mani who was also called Thomas.[64] Cyril stated: [65]
Mani had three disciples: Thomas, Baddas and Hermas. Let no one read the Gospel according to Thomas. For he is not one of the twelve apostles but one of the three wicked disciples of Mani.
Many scholars consider the Gospel of Thomas to be a gnostic text, since it was found in a library among others, it contains Gnostic themes, and perhaps presupposes a Gnostic worldview.[66] Others reject this interpretation, because Thomas lacks the full-blown mythology of Gnosticism as described by Irenaeus of Lyons (ca. 185), and because Gnostics frequently appropriated and used a large "range of scripture from Genesis to the Psalms to Homer, from the Synoptics to John to the letters of Paul."[67]

[edit] The Gospel of Thomas and the historical Jesus

Some modern scholars believe that the Gospel of Thomas was written independently of the canonical gospels, and therefore is a useful guide to historical Jesus research.[61][68] Scholars may utilize one of a number of critical tools in biblical scholarship, the criterion of multiple attestation, to help build cases for historical reliability of the sayings of Jesus. By finding those sayings in the Gospel of Thomas that overlap with Q, Mark, Matthew, Luke, John, and Paul, scholars feel such sayings represent "multiple attestations" and therefore are more likely to come from a historical Jesus than sayings that are only singly attested.[69]

[edit] Comparison of The Gospel of Thomas to the New Testament

The Gospel of Thomas does not refer to Jesus as "Christ", "Lord", or "Son of Man" as the New Testament does, but simply as "Jesus."[70] The Gospel of Thomas also lacks any mention of Jesus' birth, baptism, miracles, travels, death, and resurrection.[71] However, over half of the sayings in Thomas are similar to sayings and parables found in the canonical gospels.[72]
The Gospel of Thomas does not list the canonical twelve apostles and it does not use either this expression or the terms "the twelve" or "the twelve disciples." It does mention James the Just, who is singled out ("No matter where you are you are to go to James the Just, for whose sake heaven and earth came into being"); Simon Peter; Matthew; Thomas, who is taken aside and receives three points of revelation; Mary; and Salome. Although here Mary (presumably Mary Magdalene) and Salome are mentioned among the disciples, the canonical gospels and Acts make a distinction between an inner group of twelve male disciples, with varying lists of names, and a larger group of disciples, among which there may well have been women. Despite the favorable mention of James the Just, generally considered a "pro-circumcision" Christian, the Gospel of Thomas also dismisses circumcision:
His disciples said to him, "Is circumcision useful or not?" He said to them, "If it were useful, their father would produce children already circumcised from their mother. Rather, the true circumcision in spirit has become profitable in every respect."
Compare Thomas 8 SV
8. And Jesus said, "The person is like a wise fisherman who cast his net into the sea and drew it up from the sea full of little fish. Among them the wise fisherman discovered a fine large fish. He threw all the little fish back into the sea, and easily chose the large fish. Anyone here with two good ears had better listen!"
with Matthew 13:47–50 NIV:
47"Once again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was let down into the lake and caught all kinds of fish. 48When it was full, the fishermen pulled it up on the shore. Then they sat down and collected the good fish in baskets, but threw the bad away. 49This is how it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come and separate the wicked from the righteous 50and throw them into the fiery furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth."
Note that Thomas makes a distinction between large and small fish, whereas Matthew makes a distinction between good and bad fish. Furthermore, Thomas' version has only one fish remaining, whereas Matthew's version implies many good fish remaining. The manner in which each Gospel concludes the parable is instructive[says who?]. Thomas' version invites the reader to draw their own conclusions as to the interpretation of the saying, whereas Matthew provides an explanation connecting the text to an apocalyptic end of the age[citation needed].
Another example is the parable of the lost sheep, which is paralleled by Matthew, Luke, John, and Thomas.
This is the parable of the lost sheep in Matthew 18:12–14 NIV
12"What do you think? If a man owns a hundred sheep, and one of them wanders away, will he not leave the ninety-nine on the hills and go to look for the one that wandered off? 13And if he finds it, I tell you the truth, he is happier about that one sheep than about the ninety-nine that did not wander off. 14In the same way your Father in heaven is not willing that any of these little ones should be lost."
This is the parable of the lost sheep in Luke 15: 3-7 NIV
3Then Jesus told them this parable: 4"Suppose one of you has a hundred sheep and loses one of them. Does he not leave the ninety-nine in the open country and go after the lost sheep until he finds it? 5And when he finds it, he joyfully puts it on his shoulders 6and goes home. Then he calls his friends and neighbors together and says, 'Rejoice with me; I have found my lost sheep.' 7I tell you that in the same way there will be more rejoicing in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who do not need to repent."
This is the parable of the lost sheep in Thomas 107 SV
107. Jesus said, "The kingdom is like a shepherd who had a hundred sheep. One of them, the largest, went astray. He left the ninety-nine and looked for the one until he found it. After he had toiled, he said to the sheep, I love you more than the ninety-nine."
This is the lost sheep discourse in John 10: 1-18 NIV
1"I tell you the truth, the man who does not enter the sheep pen by the gate, but climbs in by some other way, is a thief and a robber. 2The man who enters by the gate is the shepherd of his sheep. 3The watchman opens the gate for him, and the sheep listen to his voice. He calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. 4When he has brought out all his own, he goes on ahead of them, and his sheep follow him because they know his voice. 5But they will never follow a stranger; in fact, they will run away from him because they do not recognize a stranger's voice." 6Jesus used this figure of speech, but they did not understand what he was telling them. 7Therefore Jesus said again, "I tell you the truth, I am the gate for the sheep. 8All who ever came before me were thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not listen to them. 9I am the gate; whoever enters through me will be saved.[1] He will come in and go out, and find pasture. 10The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full. 11"I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. 12The hired hand is not the shepherd who owns the sheep. So when he sees the wolf coming, he abandons the sheep and runs away. Then the wolf attacks the flock and scatters it. 13The man runs away because he is a hired hand and cares nothing for the sheep.
14"I am the good shepherd; I know my sheep and my sheep know me — 15just as the Father knows me and I know the Father — and I lay down my life for the sheep. 16I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd. 17The reason my Father loves me is that I lay down my life — only to take it up again. 18No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again. This command I received from my Father."
Other parallels include

[edit] Comparison Chart of the Major Gospels

The material in the Comparison Chart[73] is from the Gospel Parallels by B. H. Throckmorton, The five Gospels by R. W. Funk, The Gospel According to the Hebrews, by E. B. Nicholson & The Hebrew Gospel and the Development of the Synoptic Tradition by J. R. Edwards.
Item Matthew, Mark, Luke John Thomas Gospel of the Hebrews
New Covenant The central theme of the Gospels - Love God with all your heart and your neighbor as yourself [74] The central theme - Love is the New Commandment given by Jesus [75] Secret knowledge, love your friends [76] The central theme - Love one another [77]
Forgiveness Very important - particularly in Matthew and Luke [78] Assumed [79] Not mentioned Very important - Forgiveness is a central theme and this gospel goes into the greatest detail [80]
The Lord's Prayer In Matthew & Luke but not Mark [81] Not mentioned Not mentioned Important - “mahar” or "tomorrow" [82][83]
Love & the poor Very Important - The rich young man [84] Assumed [85] Important [86] Very important - The rich young man [87]
Jesus starts his ministry Jesus meets John the Baptist and is baptized [88] Jesus meets John the Baptist [89] Only speaks of John the Baptist [90] Jesus meets John the Baptist and is baptized. This gospel goes into the greatest detail [91]
Disciples-number Twelve[92] Twelve [93] not mentioned [94] Twelve [95]
Disciples-inner circle Peter, Andrew, James & John [92] Peter, Andrew, James & the Beloved Disciple [93] Peter [94] Peter, Andrew, James, & John [91]
Disciples-others Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James, Simon the Zealot, Jude Thaddaeus, & Judas[93]
Philip, Nathanael, Matthew, Thomas, James, Simon the Zealot, Jude Thaddaeus & Judas [93]
Matthew, Thomas, James the Just (Brother of Jesus) [96]
Matthew, James the Just (Brother of Jesus), Simon the Zealot, Thaddaeus, Judas [97]
Possible Authors Unknown;[98] Mark the Evangelist & Luke the Evangelist The Beloved Disciple [99] Thomas [100] Matthew the Evangelist [101]
Virgin birth account In Matthew & Luke, but not Mark [102] Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned
Jesus' baptism Described [81] Not Mentioned [81] N/A Described great detail [103]
Preaching style Brief one-liners; parables[81] Essay format, Midrash[81] Sayings, parables [104] Brief one-liners; parables [81]
Storytelling Parables [105] Figurative language & Metaphor [106] Gnostic, hidden, parables [107] Parables [108]
Jesus' theology 1st Century liberal Judaism.[109] Critical of Jewish Authorities [110] Gnostic [81] 1st Century Judaism [109]
Miracles Many miracles Seven Signs N/A Fewer but more credible miracles [111]
Duration of ministry 1 year [112] 3 years (Multiple Passovers) N/A 1 year [112]
Location of ministry Mainly Galilee Mainly Judea, near Jerusalem N/A Mainly Galilee
Passover meal Body & Blood = Bread and wine Interrupts meal for foot washing N/A Hebrew Passover is celebrated but details are N/A Epiphanius [113]
Burial shroud A single piece of cloth Multiple pieces of cloth [114] N/A Given to the High Priest [115]
Resurrection Mary and the Women are the first to learn Jesus has arisen [116] John adds detailed account of Mary's experience of the Resurrection [117] Not Applicable as Gospel of Thomas is a collection of the "sayings" of Jesus, not the events of his life In the Gospel of the Hebrews is the unique account of Jesus appearing to his brother, James the Just.[118]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Bound by a method now called Coptic binding, the books (technically called codices) were found in an earthenware jar by a group of peasants who broke open the jar and otherwise subjected the books to careless treatment resulting in significant damage
  2. ^ Modern-day scholars have numbered the sayings and even parts of the sayings, but the text contains no numbering.
  3. ^ Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible by James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, 2003, ISBN 0-8028-3711-5 page 1574
  4. ^ The Fifth Gospel, Patterson, Robinson, Bethge, 1998
  5. ^ April D. DeConick 2006 The Original Gospel of Thomas in Translation ISBN 0-567-04382-7 page 2
  6. ^ Layton, Bentley, The Gnostic Scriptures, 1987, p.361.
  7. ^ Davies, Stevan L., The Gospel of Thomas and Christian Wisdom, 1983, p.23-24.
  8. ^ DeConick, April D., The Original Gospel of Thomas in Translation, 2006, p.214
  9. ^ Alister E. McGrath, 2006 Christian Theology ISBN 1-4051-5360-1 page 12
  10. ^ James Dunn, John Rogerson 2003 Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible ISBN 0-8028-3711-5 page 1573
  11. ^ Church History (Book III), Chapter 25:7 and Eusebius
  12. ^ For photocopies of the manuscript see: http://www.gospels.net/thomas/
  13. ^ A. Guillaumont, Henri-Charles Puech, Gilles Quispel, Walter Till and Yassah `Abd Al Masih, The Gospel According to Thomas (E. J. Brill and Harper & Brothers, 1959).
  14. ^ Robinson, James M., General Editor, The Nag Hammadi Library in English, Revised Edition 1988, E.J. Brill, Leiden, and Harper and Row, San Francisco, ISBN 90-04-08856-3.
  15. ^ Coptic Gnostic Papyri in the Coptic Museum at Old Cairo, vol. I (Cairo, 1956) plates 80, line 10 – 99, line 28.
  16. ^ Bernard P. Grenfell and Arthur S. Hunt, Sayings of Our Lord from an early Greek Papyrus (Egypt Exploration Fund; 1897)
  17. ^ Robert M. Grant and David Noel Freedman, The Secret Sayings of Jesus according to the Gospel of Thomas (Fontana Books, 1960).
  18. ^ John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew (New York, 1990) p. 125.
  19. ^ Nicholas Perrin , HC II,2 and the Oxyrhynchus Fragments (P.Oxy 1, 654, 655): Overlooked Evidence for a Syriac "Gospel of Thomas", Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 58, No. 2 (May, 2004), pp. 138-151
  20. ^ Koester 1990, pp.77ff
  21. ^ Cyril Catechesis 4.36
  22. ^ Cyril Catechesis 6.31
  23. ^ Koester 1990 p. 78
  24. ^ Valantasis, p. 12
  25. ^ Patterson, Robinson, and Bethge (1998), p. 40
  26. ^ Robert E. Van Voorst, Jesus Outside the New Testament. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000). 189.
  27. ^ John P. Meier,A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, v. 1, p. 128.
  28. ^ a b c Theissen, Gerd; Annette Merz (1998). The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 0800631226. http://books.google.com/?id=3ZU97DQMH6UC. 
  29. ^ a b c d Meyer, Marvin (2001). "Albert Schweitzer and the Image of Jesus in the Gospel of Thomas". In Meyer, Marvin; Hughes, Charles. Jesus Then & Now: Images of Jesus in History and Christology. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International. p. 73. ISBN 1563383446. http://books.google.com/?id=2jCfFcKm4WUC&pg=PA73&vq=%22three+initial+suggestions%22 
  30. ^ Maurice Casey, An Aramaic Approach to Q p.33.
  31. ^ Correlation Analysis
  32. ^ a b c d Koester, Helmut; Lambdin (translator), Thomas O. (1996). "The Gospel of Thomas". In Robinson, James MacConkey. The Nag Hammadi Library in English (Revised ed.). Leiden, New York, Cologne: E. J. Brill. p. 125. ISBN 9004088563. http://books.google.com/books?id=UiSFUJ6al1IC&lpg=PA125&vq=%22it%20may%20well%20date%20from%20the%20first%20century&dq=%22gospel%20of%20thomas%22%20helmut&as_brr=3&pg=PA125 
  33. ^ Resurrection Reconsidered: Thomas and John in Conflict (Augsberg Fortess, 1995)
  34. ^ Voices of the Mystics: Early Christian Discourse in the Gospel of John and Thomas and Other Ancient Christian Literature (T&T Clark, 2001)
  35. ^ Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of Thomas. (New York: Vintage, 2004)
  36. ^ Jn 1:5, 1:10
  37. ^ logia 24, 50, 61, 83
  38. ^ compare John 1:9 to logion 77
  39. ^ (Jn. 20:26-29)
  40. ^ (logia 29, 80, 87)
  41. ^ e.g. Jn. 3:6, 6:52-6 -- but pointedly contrasting these with 6:63
  42. ^ Pagels, Elaine. Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of Thomas. New York: Vintage, 2004. pp. 66-73
  43. ^ Hogeterp, Albert L A (2006). Paul and God's Temple. Leuven, Netherlands; Dudley, MA: Peeters. p. 137. ISBN 9042917229. http://books.google.com/?id=eXb56k-DWqwC. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  44. ^ Patterson et al. (1998), p. 42
  45. ^ Darrell L. Bock, "Response to John Dominic Crossan" in The Historical Jesus ed. James K. Beilby and Paul Rhodes Eddy. 148-149. "...for most scholars the Gospel of Thomas is seen as an early-second century text." (148-149).
  46. ^ Darrell L. Bock, The Missing Gospels (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2006).61; 63. "Most date the gospel to the second century and place its origin in Syria...Most scholars regard the book as an early second-century work."(61); "However, for most scholars, the bulk of it is later reflecting a second-century work."(63)
  47. ^ Klyne R. Snodgrass, "The Gospel of Thomas: A Secondary Gospel" in The Historical Jesus:Critical Concepts in Religious Studies. Volume 4: Lives of Jesus and Jesus outside the Bible. Ed. Craig A. Evans. 299
  48. ^ Robert M. Grant and David Noel Freedman, The Secret Sayings of Jesus (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1960) 136-137.
  49. ^ For general discussion, see John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, (New York, 1991) pp. 137; p.163-64 n. 133. See also Christopher Tuckett, "Thomas and the Synoptics," Novum Testamentum 30 (1988) 132-57, esp. p. 146.
  50. ^ See summary in John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew (New York, 1991) p. 135-138, especially the footnotes.
  51. ^ Evans, Craig A. Fabricating Jesus: How Modern Scholars Distort the Gospels. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Books, 2008.[page needed]
  52. ^ Klyne R. Snodgrass, "The Gospel of Thomas: A Secondary Gospel" in The Historical Jesus:Critical Concepts in Religious Studies. Volume 4: Lives of Jesus and Jesus outside the Bible. Ed. Craig A. Evans. 298
  53. ^ Nicholas Perrin, "Thomas: The Fifth Gospel?," Journal of The Evangelical Theological Society 49 (March 2006): 66-/80
  54. ^ Perrin, Nicholas. Thomas and Tatian: The Relationship Between the Gospel of Thomas and the Diatessaron (Academia Biblica, 5). Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2003.
  55. ^ Williams, P.J., "Alleged Syriac Catchwords in the Gospel of Thomas" Vigiliae Christianae, Volume 63, Number 1, 2009, pp. 71-82(12) BRILL [1]
  56. ^ Robert F. Shedinger, "Thomas and Tatian: The Relationship between the Gospel of Thomas and the Diatessaron by Nicholas Perrin" Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 122, No. 2 (Summer, 2003), pp. 388
  57. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (1999). Jesus, apocalyptic prophet of the new millennium (revised ed.). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 75–78. ISBN 0195124731. 
  58. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament:its origin, development and significance p.75
  59. ^ Ehrman 2003 pp. 242-3
  60. ^ Ehrman 2003 p. 55
  61. ^ a b Funk 1993 p. 15
  62. ^ Ehrman 2003 pp.57-8
  63. ^ April D. De Conick 2006 The original Gospel of Thomas in translation ISBN 0-567-04382-7 pages 2-3
  64. ^ Wilhelm Schneemelcher 2006 New Testament Apocrypha ISBN 0-664-22721-X page 111
  65. ^ Bentley Layton 1989 Nag Hammadi codex II, 2-7: Gospel according to Thomas ISBN 90-04-08131-3 page 106
  66. ^ Ehrman 2003 pp.59ff
  67. ^ Davies, Stevan. "Thomas: The Fourth Synoptic Gospel", The Biblical Archaeologist 1983 The American Schools of Oriental Research. p. 6-8
  68. ^ Koester 1990 p. 84-6
  69. ^ Funk 1993 p. 16ff
  70. ^ Koester 1990 pp. 86-7
  71. ^ Ehrman 2003 pp. 55
  72. ^ Ehrman 2003 pp. 55ff
  73. ^ See Chart
  74. ^ "In the Synoptic Gospels this is the "Greatest" Commandment" that sums up all of the "Law and the Prophets"
  75. ^ Jn 13:34
  76. ^ Log 25
  77. ^ The Lord says to his disciples: ”And never be you joyful, except when you behold one another with love.” Jerome, Commentary on Ephesians
  78. ^ Matt 18:21, Lk 17:4
  79. ^ Jn 20:23
  80. ^ In the Gospel of the Hebrews, written in the Chaldee and Syriac language but in Hebrew script, and used by the Nazarenes to this day (I mean the Gospel of the Apostles, or, as it is generally maintained, the Gospel of Matthew, a copy of which is in the library at Caesarea), we find, “Behold the mother of the Lord and his brothers said to him, ‘John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins. Let us go and be baptized by him.’ But Jesus said to them, ‘in what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance.’” And in the same volume, “‘If your brother sins against you in word, and makes amends, forgive him seven times a day.’ Simon, His disciple, said to Him, ‘Seven times in a day!’ The Lord answered and said to him, ‘I say to you, Seventy times seven.’ ” Jerome, Against Pelagius 3.2
  81. ^ a b c d e f g Trite
  82. ^ In the so-called Gospel of the Hebrews, for “bread essential to existence,” I found “mahar”, which means “of tomorrow”; so the sense is: our bread for tomorrow, that is, of the future, give us this day. Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 1
  83. ^ In Matthew's Hebrew Gospel it states, ‘Give us this day our bread for tomorrow.” Jerome, On Psalm 135
  84. ^ Matt 19:16, Mk 10:17 & Lk1 8:18
  85. ^ Jn 12:8
  86. ^ Jesus said "Blessed are the poor, for to you belongs the Kingdom of Heaven" Log 54
  87. ^ The second rich youth said to him, “Rabbi, what good thing can I do and live?” Jesus replied, “Fulfill the law and the prophets.” “I have,” was the response. Jesus said, “Go, sell all that you have and distribute to the poor; and come, follow me.” The youth became uncomfortable, for it did not please him. And the Lord said, “How can you say, I have fulfilled the Law and the Prophets, when it is written in the Law: You shall love your neighbor as yourself and many of your brothers, sons of Abraham, are covered with filth, dying of hunger, and your house is full of many good things, none of which goes out to them?” And he turned and said to Simon, his disciple, who was sitting by Him, “Simon, son of Jonah, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for the rich to enter the Kingdom of Heaven. ”Origen, Commentary on Matthew 15:14
  88. ^ Matt 3:1, Mk 1:9, 3:21
  89. ^ Jn 1:29
  90. ^ Gospel of Thomas, Logion 46: Jesus said, "From Adam to John the Baptist, among those born to women, no one is greater than John the Baptist that his eyes should not be averted. But I have said that whoever among you becomes a child will recognize the (Father's) kingdom and will become greater than John."
  91. ^ a b Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13
  92. ^ a b Matt 10:1, Mk 6:8, Lk 9:3
  93. ^ a b c d Jn 13:23, 19:26, 20:2, 21:7, 21:20
  94. ^ a b Log 13
  95. ^ “There was a certain man named Jesus, about thirty years old, who chose us. Coming to Capernaum, He entered the house of Simon, who is called Peter, and said, ‘As I passed by the Sea of Galilee, I chose John and James, sons of Zebedee, and Simon, and Andrew, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, Judas Iscariot; and you Matthew, sitting at the tax office, I called and you followed me. You therefore, I want to be the Twelve, to symbolize Israel.’”Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13
  96. ^ Log 1- 114
  97. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13, Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  98. ^ Although several Fathers say Matthew wrote the Gospel of the Hebrews they are silent about Greek Matthew found in the Bible. Modern scholars are in agreement that Matthew did not write Greek Matthews which is 300 lines longer than the Hebrew Gospel (See James Edwards the Hebrew gospel)
  99. ^ Suggested by Irenaeus first
  100. ^ Preface to the Gospel of Thomas
  101. ^ They too accept Matthew's gospel, and like the followers of Cerinthus and Merinthus, they use it alone. They call it the Gospel of the Hebrews, for in truth Matthew alone in the New Testament expounded and declared the Gospel in Hebrew using Hebrew script. Epiphanius, Panarion 30:3
  102. ^ Matt 1:18
  103. ^ “After the people were baptized, Jesus also came and was baptized by John. As Jesus came up from the water, Heaven was opened, and He saw the Holy Spirit descend in the form of a dove and enter into him. And a voice from Heaven said, ‘You are my beloved Son; with You I am well pleased.’ And again, ‘Today I have begotten you.’ “Immediately a great light shone around the place; and John, seeing it, said to him, ‘Who are you, Lord?' And again a voice from Heaven said, ‘This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.’ Then John, falling down before Him, said, ‘I beseech You, Lord, baptize me!’ But Jesus forbade him saying, ‘Let it be so as it is fitting that all things be fulfilled.’” Epiphanius, Panarion 30:13
  104. ^ Jesus said, "The (Father's) kingdom is like a shepherd who had a hundred sheep. One of them, the largest, went astray. He left the ninety-nine and looked for the one until he found it. After he had toiled, he said to the sheep, 'I love you more than the ninety-nine.'" Log 107
  105. ^ Parables
  106. ^ Language in the Gospel of John
  107. ^ Log 109
  108. ^ Parables of Jesus
  109. ^ a b Similar to beliefs taught by Hillel the Elder. (eg. "golden rule")Hillel Hillel the Elder
  110. ^ Jn 7:45 & Jn 3:1
  111. ^ Jerome, Commentary on Matthew 2
  112. ^ a b Events leading up to Passover
  113. ^ Epiphanius, Panarion 30:22
  114. ^ As was the Jewish practice at the time. (John 20:5-7)
  115. ^ Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  116. ^ Matt 28:1 Mk16:1 Lk24:1
  117. ^ Jn 20:11
  118. ^ Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2

[edit] References

  • Davies, Stevan (1983). The Gospel of Thomas and Christian Wisdom. Seabury Press. ISBN081642456X
  • DeConick, April. Recovering the Original Gospel of Thomas: A History of the Gospel and Its Growth (T&T Clark, 2005)
  • Ehrman, Bart (2003). Lost Scriptures: Books that Did Not Make it into the New Testament. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 019-514182-2. 
  • Funk, Robert Walter and Roy W. Hoover, The Five Gospels: What Did Jesus Really Say? the Search for the Authentic Words of Jesus, Polebridge Press, 1993
  • Guillaumont, Antoine Jean Baptiste, Henri-Charles Puech, G. Quispel, Walter Curt Till, and Yassah ˁAbd al-Masīh, eds. 1959. Evangelium nach Thomas. Leiden: E. J. Brill Standard edition of the Coptic text
  • Koester, Helmut (1990). Ancient Christian Gospels. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International. ISBN 0334024501. http://books.google.com/?id=DGK4sIPk4PYC. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  • Layton, Bentley (1987). The Gnostic Scriptures. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-47843-7.
  • Layton, Bentley (1989). Nag Hammadi Codex II, 2 vols, E.J.Brill. The critical edition of the seven texts of Codex II, including the Gospel of Thomas. ISBN 90-04-08131-3
  • Meyer, Marvin (2004). The Gospel of Thomas: The Hidden Sayings of Jesus. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-065581-5.
  • Pagels, Elaine (2003). Beyond Belief : The Secret Gospel of Thomas (New York: Random House)
  • Patterson, Stephen J; Robinson, James M.;Bethge, Hans-Gebhard (1998). The Fifth Gospel: The Gospel of Thomas Comes of Age. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International. ISBN 1563382490. http://books.google.com/?id=JlZql9JcoBsC. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  • Perrin, Nicholas. Thomas and Tatian: The Relationship between the Gospel of Thomas and the Diatessaron (Academia Biblica 5; Atlanta : Society of Biblical Literature; Leiden : Brill, 2002).
  • Perrin, Nicholas. Thomas: The Other Gospel (London, SPCK; Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox: 2007).
  • Robinson, James M. et al., The Nag Hammadi Library in English (4th rev. ed.; Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill, 1996)
  • Plisch, Uwe-Karsten (2007). Das Thomasevangelium. Originaltext mit Kommentar. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. ISBN 3438051281. 
  • Snodgrass, Klyne R. "The Gospel of Thomas: A secondary Gospel," Second Century 7, 1989. pp. 19–30.
  • Tuckett, Christopher M. "Thomas and the Synoptics," Novum Testamentum 30 (1988) 132-57, esp. p. 146.
  • Valantasis, Richard (1997). The Gospel of Thomas. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 041511621X. http://books.google.com/?id=bqr7nhiKr9UC. Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  • The Facsimile Edition of the Nag Hammadi Codices: Codex II. E.J.Brill (1974)

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